Should You Consider Multiple Majors or Minors? Examine the Pros and Cons

Printer-Friendly Version


by Sharon Jones


U.S. Department of Education statistics reveal an 85 percent increase in the number of college students earning multiple majors in the last 10 years. While some academic administrators believe that the trend reflects resume-building during a difficult job market, some students are showing foresight by preparing for multi-disciplinary careers. A student with a double major in biology and philosophy was awarded a two-year fellowship in bioethics by the National Institutes of Health. He plans to attend medical school after completing this training.


Should you consider more than one major or minor? This article looks at the pros and cons and presents a table showing major and minor combinations you might consider for specific careers.


Multiple College Majors: Pros

What are some reasons that students give for earning a double (or even triple) major?


  • More is better. Employers will recognize the hard work required to achieve more than one major.

  • Students can graduate on time and explore many interests through Advanced Placement (AP) credits. Students sometimes enter college at the sophomore or junior level via AP exam scores.

  • “One for me and one for mom.” Parents proclaim that a student’s choice of major is impractical and pressure a student to choose another one that seems more marketable.

  • Diverse interests. Some people are “Renaissance Souls,” according to Margaret Lobenstine’s book by the same name, and can’t choose just one focus. A career-change in the future may require different skills from those gained in any given major.

  • Jobs are increasingly multidisciplinary and require different skills. Universities typically react slowly to employer needs for qualified staff to fill new and emerging careers. Institutions of higher education may consider certain disciplines to be outside their organizational mission. To acquire diverse skills for a new career field, a student may need to mix and match majors, minors, and electives.


Employers are usually more flexible than students expect in recruiting applicants with majors that don’t seem to match targeted jobs. A couple of examples spotlight employers open to an eclectic academic mix:

(Are you)… wary of signing your life away to an uninspiring corporation? … We’re not your typical finance firm — we hire Ph.D.s in philosophy, MFAs in poetry, and former spelling bee champions. We offer brilliant colleagues, flexible schedules, free food, and no dress code. Plus, we have a supercomputer. No matter what you’ve studied, if you’re smart, accomplished, and willing to learn, you’ll fit right in. — D.E. Shaw (global investment and technology development firm)


We are currently looking to hire three to four people. However, each position contains more than one area of responsibility, all of which can be mixed-and-matched. And who are WE to tell YOU the best combination? Instead, we are looking to YOU to tell US the best combination of responsibilities to meet your strengths and interests. — Global Kids (leadership program)


Exceptions include jobs in which the major is directly related to the job: chemist, nurse, accountant and others. A second major is not necessary to qualify for most jobs. A minor or careful selection of electives can increase a student’s marketability.


Multiple College Majors: Cons

What are some of the negatives to multiple majors and minors?

  • Additional cost and time to graduate. A year of extra tuition and living expenses plus foregone income during the time a student may have been employed.

  • Employers suspect that a student lacks focus. Hiring decision-makers may doubt that an applicant is sincerely interested in a career field that is very different from majors that required such additional commitment.

  • Lack of other important experience. Multiple majors require additional time that could otherwise be spent on internships, study abroad, leadership roles in extracurricular activities, and relevant volunteer work.

  • The majors do not complement one another enough to add value. A psychology major gets another major in sociology; a biology major chooses a second degree in chemistry.


Major and Minor Combinations for Specific Careers

Some possible combinations of majors, minors, and electives or skills for specific careers are listed below.



Job Major(s) Second Major/Minor Skills/
Data miner, search engine analyst, competitive intelligence analyst Information Science Human Factors Web analytics, Statistics
Decision science analyst, risk analyst Applied Mathematics, Decision Sciences, Risk Management Economics, Business
Pharmaceutical sales Biology, Chemistry, Dietetics Communications, Business
Trade relations specialist Business, Economics International Studies, Foreign Languages
Actuary Actuarial Science, Mathematics, Statistics Business
Intelligence analyst (national security) Political Science, Area Studies, International Relations, International Studies Foreign Language (especially Arabic, Persian, Russian, Farsi and others in critically short supply)
Business intelligence analyst Business, Statistics Computer Science, Information Science
Marketing research analyst Business, Marketing, Mathematics Psychology, Consumer Science Consumer behavior, Marketing, Database software
Economist (entry level) Economics Depends on focus, such as health, education, etc.
Research/Management assistant (social policy) Public Policy Psychology, Sociology Research methodology
Junior transportation planner Urban Planning, Civil Engineering Geography, Economics, Environmental Science
Search engine marketing analyst Business, Economics Advertising Computer software applicable to field



Job Major(s) Second Major/Minor Skills/
Animation specialist, Game designer, Online game artist Graphic Design, Computer Graphics Computer Science Creative writing, Art (drawing)
Medical/biomedical photographer Biology, Chemistry Medical Imaging Photographic design software
Online content writer/editor English, Journalism Digital Media
Corporate blogger Business, Marketing Journalism
Cultural resources project member Anthropology, Archeology Historic Preservation GIS/GPS, environmental planning, natural resources


Social Sciences/Non-Profit/Government

Job Major(s) Second Major/Minor Skills/
Wilderness specialist Psychology, Sociology, Education Physical Education, Recreation
Victim advocate, Restitution specialist, Adult protective services coordinator Psychology, Sociology Criminal Justice Law-related classes
Resettlement coordinator Anthropology, International Relations Psychology, Sociology
Peace Corps volunteer Health Education, Environmental Studies, Public Health


Business, Engineering, Sciences, Computer Science

Liberal Arts (History, Political Science, English, Psychology, Photography, Theater, Fine Arts, etc.)


Education , Spanish, French

Conservation, Multimedia, Community development, Literacy education, English as a second language



Job Major(s) Second Major/Minor Skills/
Environmental scientist Environmental Science, Environmental Studies Public Policy
Utility arborist Forestry, Natural Resource Management, Biology, Horticulture, Agriculture Environmental Science, Geography, Geology, Recreation Parks Management
Geographic information system (GIS) analyst, data specialist, remote sensing specialist Geography, Geology, Cartography City Planning, Statistics GIS software
Biomedical engineer Biomedical Engineering, Biology, Engineering, Health Sciences, Chemistry Psychology, Mathematics, Computer Science


Public Policy and Research: Social Science, Education, Health

Job Major(s) Second Major/Minor Skills/
Health policy analyst Public Health Psychology, Sociology, Economics English (writing skills)
Social science research assistant Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Statistics Quantitative and qualitative research, SAS, SPSS
Intelligence analyst (national security) Political Science, Area Studies, International Relations, International Studies Foreign Language (Arabic, Persian)
Research Assistant Economics, Mathematics, Statistics Sociology or related, Political Science SAS, STATA, databases
Technical researcher (public policy research) Statistics, Economics, Mathematics, Computer Science Public Policy, Psychology, Sociology Statistical and database software (SAS, SPSS), technical writing


Final Thoughts on Multiple College Majors/Minors

Should you choose more than one major (or major and minors)? It depends on your career goals and other factors (cost, time to graduate, need for multidisciplinary skills). Consult your college career-services staff, academic advisors, alumni who work in the targeted occupation, and other resources to guide your decision.



Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.


Sharon Jones is a career advisor, author, and speaker. She is an assistant director at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a career consultant at Career Moves. Jones specializes in college students (undergraduate and graduate), dual-career couples, military veterans, and applicants for federal employment. She is co-author of The Parent’s Crash Course in Career Planning: Helping Your College Student Succeed. Her background includes university career services, a human-resources consulting firm, private practice, Fortune 500 corporations, and the military.


Have you taken advantage of all of our college planning resources?


Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas.